eBook

The misunderstanding regarding the digital reading

In this article we focus, for the nth time, on the false dualism between printed book and eBook or between reading in paper form & digital reading.

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In the past we have analysed university studies that have established how the sequential reading on printed text leaves more traces in our memory, we have discovered, with surprise, that during reading the elderly ones benefit from the backlight provided by the tablets and we have tried to explain the remarkable potential, inherent in the hypertext, in the links that connect a text to another.

In this article we will try to demolish for good the misinterpretation related to the digital reading. In few lines we want to convince you that the dualism between reading on paper and digital reading is totally unfounded. To do this, we will use the recent report published by ISTAT, the Italian Institute of Statistics, on 13 January 2016, in reference to 2015, report known as “Reading in Italy” (“La lettura in Italia”).

Let’s focus right away on the first important concept taken in the report: In Italy, are over four million the people who have read at least once on digital, in the last quarter, and the phenomenon is progressively becoming of the large-scale:

8.2 % of the overall population (4.5 million people equal to the 14.1% of the people who have browse the Internet in the last three months) have read or have unloaded online books or e-books in the last three months.

Although the phenomenon is less extensive and fast comparing to others on the Internet, such as the viral spread of WhatsApp, we are dealing with numbers that should not be underestimated, on the rise. Besides, the time frame under consideration is relatively short, a quarter and not the whole year.

To this first axiom shall be added another one: the digital reading is not an alternative to the reading on paper. As many hypothesize, there are not taking shape two factions of readers on the contrary we are turning into “omnivorous readers” digital & paper-based.

The printed volumes and the digital books are not alternative publishing products neither in competition: the share of people who in the last 3 months have read online or have downloaded books or e-books increases in proportion to the number of books at home and touches the maximum value (23.8%) precisely among the people who already have a personal library with more than 200 volumes. 

Therefore who loves to read lives, more and more, this own “predisposition” both in traditional framework and by the use of new approaches. On second thought the thing has its own logic, the value of a novel or a story is inherent in the work and not in the device that allows us the fruition, while the interest, the passion, belongs to the reader. In the house of who loves to read, the real library and the virtual one can fuse together and complement each other.

The “digital reading” phenomenon analysed by ISTAT surprises us further:

In this context may be considered as a positive signal, even if still weak, the fact that approximately 6% of those who don’t have books in the house, has surfed however the Internet in the last three months  and has read online or has downloaded books or e-books. The diffusion of the books in digital format as well as the e-books could represent in perspective a new approach channel to reading for those families that don’t have great familiarity with libraries and printed books. 

Maybe, after several decades and mass literacy, the printed book has reached maximum interest; maybe new channels of access to cultural heritage, the digital ones, would capture the attention of who doesn’t read today.

The eBook can capture new potential readers, compulsive, with little free time, good interaction skills, with a good relation with the media material and the web, readers who, precisely for the characteristics listed so far, don’t have the right bounce with the printed book. To whom are we referring? Obviously to the youngest ones! Hypothesis that is confirmed by the next step:

The online reading and the downloading of books and e-books are usually activities practiced by the youngsters: it concerns particularly 22.4% guys between 18 and 19 years old who surf the Internet. According to the findings for the traditional books, are more the females who read online and download books (15.2% of the women who use the web) than the males (13.2%), reaching a peak among the 18-19 year-old girls (27.8%). 

Almost one young person in four, among those who browse the Internet, one in five in absolute terms, reads “digital”. The digital reading is taking hold among the new generations, this last statistic index  leads us to conjecture that the percentage of digital readers will only grow in the coming years, especially if, as we think, the devices for reading, the prices and the conditions of reading will further improve.

There is one last point, sociologically relevant, to analyse: the digital book, unlike the printed one, is read with similar frequency throughout Italy. The digital will perhaps smooth out the gap, present in the traditional reading that has always existed in Italy between North and South.

Taking into account the access to the digital books via Internet, the traditional distances among the different areas of the country seem to scale down: reading and downloading books and e-books through Internet concerns in fact a share of people that oscillates between 16.4% of the Northwest and 11.9% of the Southern Italy and between 16.9% of the inhabitants of the central communes of metropolitan areas and 13.9% of those of the small centers (from 2.001 to 10.000 inhabitants).

To sum up:

  • The dualism between printed text and digital one is non-existent; it is only a chit-chat (or Facebook gossip).
  • Who reads lots of traditional books reads more and more often the digital ones too.

The fear that the digital reading will produce armies of illiterate is equally unfounded; in fact the trends provided by ISTAT indicate the digital channel as the way to catch the attention of the “no readers”, particularly the youngest. This greater propensity to the digital reading takes place both in the North and in the South, overcoming historical limits inherent in traditional reading, besides Internet is a virtual space of which tendencies hardly have geographical borders.

The true protagonists of this change are the young people and, indirectly, the technological tools, but the true promoters, authors of every cultural need, are the social agents the persons closest to them, their parents, teachers, librarians, social workers and so on. The action of cultural mediation is the core of the whole process, while the paper, personal computers, tablets and e-readers are only the access channels to the information; channels that change, inevitably, as time goes by.

Printed format or Digital? Doesn’t matter as long as you keep reading!

Pass the word!

WorldTwoDotZero

 

Slow Reading

Faster and faster! We are moving faster and faster

Since smart devices as mobile phones and tablets have spread, we keep receiving new stimuli all day long: texts, videos, images, short audio files, e-mails, emoticons and so on… We receive all sorts of things.

E-mail, Facebook, Twitter and most of all WhatsApp, have made us always traceable, ready to debate, hyper-receptive, perhaps unjustifiably available.

Our followers are increasing month after month: we add a neighbor, a colleague, an old friend… Therefore, both our number of received messages as well as of sent messages keep growing…a real “virtual Babel”.

Some of us, quite a few, are progressively reducing the interval of internet access, more and more frequently they feel the need to check if there are some news on their social spaces or email. On our previous article we have quoted the FOMO phenomenon, “Fear of missing out”, afraid of not participating when it happened. A fear that, applied to the network, forces the internaut to be online more and more frequently.

A greater virtual presence implies, inevitably, a lesser presence, perception and availability in the real world.

In practice, from the motor point of view, while we receive hundreds of virtual stimuli, we sit still, immovable. Our metabolism is inactive, silent, almost all of our muscles are unused. We are like Keanu Reeves in Matrix who, before being released, lived, immobile, in an electronic cocoon, a “normal” virtual life.

A possible antidote to this increasing acceleration /virtualization of our lives is offered by David Mikics: the “Slow Reading in a Hurried Age”.

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We are familiar with the concept, it reintroduces successful tendencies such as “Slow Food” or “Degrowth movement“, trends based on the will to give back spaces, flavors and new feelings to the individual; the basics.

But what is the Slow Reading?

First of all the Slow Reading is not “against” internet, nor a nostalgic form of valorization of the printed book to the detriment of the digital one. The Slow Reading is a readout mode which not only involves the net, the eBooks and the digital material in general, but a way of dealing with the information, the content.

David Mikics suggests to follow the “book’s rhythm”, to stop and reflect on what we are reading, to look for small details in the text, “to dialogue” with the author, for instance adding notes to the borders of the text, reading without rushing, approaching patiently even the great novels.

To David Mikics echoes Thomas Newkirk that in his book “The Art of Slow Reading: Six Time-Honored Practices for Engagement” traces an extremely analytical framework of our way of reading, analysing principally the readout mode and the multitasking approach of “our” students.

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We find particularly fascinating two of his concepts:

  • Clock in the mind“, practically each of us has his own “inside clock”, each of us needs his time to get a correct and complete understanding of what he reads
  • Culture of distraction”, too much information has transformed our way of reading, now we “hop” from one resource to another.

Thomas Newkirk affirms that it is necessary to re-establish the bond between the book we are reading and the words of which is composed of.

It is obvious, we would add, that our lifestyle has heavily influenced our way of reading and thinking. TVs, text messages, chats, instant messengers, blogs have set in motion a synthetic process of our language, of visual inputs proliferation. We have grown accustomed from search engines to move among million of occurrences, creating in many of us, a sort of addiction toward the overload of information that we are effectively experiencing with the consequence that the choice, often, is reduced to the first three results on the list.

The virtualization’s process of our lives is just starting out and is irreversible, there are no alternatives or dualisms, the path is clear, the printed book, probably already in the first half of the century, will be replaced by the digital one. The handwriting will follow analogous fate and over the same period the number of persons who will not use internet daily will be close to zero, equally the number of persons who will work at home, through the network, it will exceed 30%.

Under these conditions, given the change of our habitat, we need to learn how to filter the stimuli coming from the web, how to read slowly, how to analyse patiently the list results provided by Google looking for what really interests us. We need to learn how to read Websites and Portals ignoring advertising images, banner, special offers and casual proposals of friendship.

It is necessary to find a balance between our thought and our available time and between our available time and the information proposed.

The story, the novel, if read in the right way with the proper attention, might become the antidote, stimulating the capacity for thought and for critical thinking, training our mind.

There is no need to think and read fast, we just need to think and read.

Once again in this blog we try to overcome false dualisms between real and virtual, between technology and culture, between analog and digital, in support of a total awareness that only the thought, the reason can guide us during this irreversible historical change.

WorldTwoDotZero

The reading of the texts: Paper against Screen

The basic principle of this article is simple, almost banal: the technology online is changing our way of reading, focusing and perceiving information.
The progressive substitution of the papery support with a video display is inevitably modifying our receptive ability.
The process is without doubt uneven and involves mostly the young people and the “high-tech” sector, those who use frequently the net.
The use of smart devices such as cell phones, tablets, e-readers, supports decisively this change; over the last decade the reading of “material in digital format” has become from occasional to very frequent, even indispensable in certain cases.
The new video displays, smaller and smaller and more and more high-resolution, propose a wide range of contains, including multimedia files, rarely in their entirety. It is necessary to browse and bypass the advertising inserts, advancing into a jungle of information in order to have a complete picture or to track down what is required, unless our attention is not distracted from alternative contains.
The information placed on the video display loses the “page” structure for a more and more elaborated multidimensionality. It becomes browsable, full of hyperlinks, images and videos, the pages shorten then expand with a click, or vice versa, the fonts increase in size, the language changes becoming guttural synthetic and visual, composed only of short twitters and empathetic smilies.
This change is so consistent to induce us to affirm that until now, on web, it is impossible to read a text sequentially without being transported elsewhere, visually and receptively.
In this stage 2.0, in which internet changes fast, a certain “digital divide” of bidirectional type arises. One part of the audience doesn’t know or doesn’t want to read newspapers or papery books, the other part has trouble interacting with the technology and doesn’t succeed in reading a webpage or a novel in eBook format. There is an evident generation gap in terms of perception and understanding regarding the tool and the readout mode which is being used.
Magazines are now useless and impossible to understand, for digital natives”—that is, for people who have been interacting with digital technologies from a very early age.
(from “The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper“)
These changes determine evident contradictions: sometimes the “traditional” readers don’t succeed in approaching a multimedia text in its entirety as well as in evaluating all its alternatives (link and multimedia elements), vice versa the youngest ones often use an excessively impulsive method of reading based on the text browsing and not on the sequential close examination of the contents, this having unavoidably an effect on the comprehension and the rationalisation of the information.
We must specify that such change is irreversible; the proportion between digital and papery material is moving fast toward the digital one. To confirm this is the closure of over 10.000 newsstands in Italy over the last decade, closure caused only minimally by the economic crisis. The readers are moving toward internet and to prove it is the crisis of purchasing of the newspapers and magazines in paper format.
Let us be clear, the final changeover to the digital it will take time, perhaps generations, but it is facilitated by certain factors such as the availability of the contents (immediate, countless, sometimes free), also on mobile devices, minor (or no) clutter, minor perishability comparing to the papery one (and not the other way round as many of nostalgic people of the paper format affirm), etc…
On Internet it is not difficult to find studies that are aimed at analysing this phenomenon, among all we underline the following:
Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension” developed by Anne Mangen and published on January 2013 (University of Stavanger in Norway).
Anne Mangen and her staff have analysed the behavior of two groups of students, the first group has studied a text in paper format, the second one has studied the same text by reading it on monitor LCD.
The analysis of the questionnaires that the students have passed through after the text reading, has underlined a better comprehension of the text from those who had read the paper format. What does it mean that the reading on video is less reflexive and analytical? That it gives fewer memories and concepts to the reader? We don’t really know, the excessively homogeneous sample (72 students all of the same age, education and social background) along with the fact that the students were not digital natives to all intents and purposes (the university students of the class of 2013 have completed a good part of their education in the ‘90s and the early 2000s entirely on the paper in absence of social network and smartphones), make us wonder. In short, the same study repeated in the 2030s and on a sample of subjects of different ages could provide us less convergent results.
The second study we suggest deals the matter wider (and in a comparative way). The study has been developed in 2008 by Jan M. Noyes and Kate J. Garland of the University of Bristol, Department of Experimental Psychology and is about “Computer- vs. paper-based tasks: Are they equivalent?“.
The peculiarity of this research, of only 24 pages, is the presence of various summary charts that show studies developed during different timeframes. The presence of dozens of researches with very different results, in some antithetical cases, reveals us how controversial is the topic and how difficult is indeed to come to a conclusion.
Even though, most likely after reading these charts, some “probable certainty” begins to emerge:
– It is likely that the human eye is mostly responsive in front of the video screen, the fastest reading allows us to move among the arguments but at the same time generates the assimilation of fewer information, leaving less traces in our memory, while the slow, progressive and sequential reading, determines benefits in the perception.
– Many of the proposed studies have been developed in the ’80s and ’90s; today, the daily use of video screens also of small dimensions, the different receptive ability of today readers, along with a different graphic-publishing proposal of the contents of the last generation texts (let’s mention for example the frequent use of infographics and “responsive design” techniques), makes these experimentations obsolete, at least in part.
We believe that for a complete evaluation of a new generation of tools, we need a new generation of users! It is impossible to evaluate in absolute terms the receptiveness of a reading on a video screen without paying specific attention to the generation gap in the sample of the users! Let’s remember, that the new Web came up about ten years ago.
– the charts proposed in the research are in fact illegible on the video screen and this is a paradox, maybe done on purpose, where a document that concerns the comprehension of the text may be intelligible only if printed on paper format. If the receptiveness of the readers on the video screen has been proved by using documents with charts like these, the results are actually unreliable. Anything but infographic and new graphic techniques 2.0, there are charts placed the wrong way, we are genuinely perplexed!
In addition, we recommend, actually we place it at the top of the list, a reading  of “Eyetracking Web Usability“, a text that is not a recent one (2009), by Jakob Nielsen and Kara Pernice, a real milestone that provides a particularly exhaustive sample of cases, the outcome of a triennium of research, in which has been described the behavior of the human eye in front of a video screen. Clicking the following link you will find 32 interesting pages  available in PDF format where are chromatically highlighted topics of special interest and the paths that the eye follows (eyetraking) on the web page / digital text.
Contrary to what everyone thinks, the images and the multimedia elements don’t represent the entry point in a reading of a Web page, despite the presence of various stimuli, the user always tends to begin reading from top left to right (see the image placed on top of this article – red area Priority 1). It is also true that unfamiliar concepts, such as the use of the tools for advanced search, are better assimilated and understood if supported by multimedia examples (for instance short videos that describe them). It is also decisive the ability of summarizing when the paragraphs of a text are created, longer the text is, bigger the probability grows that the cyberuser loses his patience giving it up for a different alternative present on the page or on web.
In conclusion in Internet, up to now, every component develops a conclusive role from the visual and receptive point of view: the background color, the colors of the main entities, the positioning of the menu, the browsing keys, the images, the “alternatives” offers, the connection and the congruity between the information. The online offer is richer, the alternatives lead the eye to perceive more information in a short period of time losing completely the sequential approach that characterizes a reading of a papery text.
It is also clear the fact that the reading time and the intensity of comprehension of a text on a video screen are, up to now, inferior compared to an analogous document in paper format. Further researches, probably in the coming decades, will confirm or disprove this trend. Maybe the new generations, who will use almost exclusively the video display, will prove to be less receptive than the previous ones, less capable of comprehending, or, refining their digital abilities, through a sort of Darwinian evolution of senses, will succeed in controlling their own “eye tracking” so as to reach a comprehension level similar to the papery one, maturing, at the same time, a better comparative ability thanks to the presence of many hypertextual options toward “other” contents.

WorldTwoDotZero